Chuantao (CT) WANG
2395 Andover Blvd.. Oakland Township, MI 48306, USA,
1. Primary Employment Position and Institution:
Chief Die Engineer Phone: 248-753-4504
General Motors Manufacturing Engineering
General Motors Corporation Email: Chuan-tao.Wang@gm.com
Pontiac, Michigan 48341
For innovations and leadership in developing and productioning simulation-based engineering and manufacturing science in traditional metal forming industry to strengthen manufacturing competitiveness.
Ph. D, Industrial Systems and Engineering, 1993, The Ohio State University,
M.S. Materials Science and Engineering, 1990, The Ohio State University.
M.S. Mechanical Engineering, 1986, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
B.S. Mechanical Engineering, 1982, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
3. Professional Work Experience
· 2007: Chief Die Engineer/Technical Fellow, GM Global Die Center. Led global innovations in virtual engineering technology, common formability and quality standards, standardized work processes, and production applications across all regions GM operates.
· 2003 - 2006: Engineering Group Manager/Technical Fellow, GM Manufacturing Engineering. Led integrated R&D&A efforts to develop and implement next level virtual engineering tool – the digital die technology and quality system for virtual manufacturing of finished part via entire die/press line simulations to predict and resolve line die forming formability, surface and dimensional quality in line die forming operations (draw, trim/piercing, flange)
· 2000 - 2003: Engineering Analysis Manager, GM Metal Fabricating Division, Die Engineering. Led Level-2 technology development and production application of simulation-based die engineering for validations of formability, surface quality and springback of drawn panels.
· 1997 – July 31, 2000: Advanced Manufacturing Engineer (8th level tech leader), GM Metal Fabricating Division, Die Engineering. Led Level-1 technology development and quantum leap in mass production application for 100% draw dies of all vehicle programs. Started in 1997, the virtual engineering simulations replaced proof tools and associated tryout.
· 1993 – 1997: Senior Manufacturing Engineer, Senior Engineering Analyst. GM Metal Fabricating Division, Die Engineering. Pioneered the technology development and production application of simulation-based die engineering for draw dies. Personally applied the technology to ~200 dies.
· 1993 May ~ 1993 Nov.: Senior Project Engineer, Engineering Technology Associates Inc., Troy, MI. Technical and business development for metal forming simulation software package and application processes
4. Outstanding Technical and Professional Engineering Accomplishments
As an international recognized leading technologist and business leader, Wang played a critical role and made significant contributions to GM’s historical transformation in its die and stamping business to a science-based and technology-and-process driven modern enterprise from a trial-and-error based traditional operation. The major accomplishments include:
· Simulation-based virtual engineering system: Led and developed digital die technology and quality system for automotive dies and stampings to predict and resolve potential failures (splits) and quality defects (surface distortion, springback) in virtual engineering phase before physical tools are made and tried out. The unique virtual engineering systems consists of four major components:
o A simulation engine to predict stamping characteristic (stresses, strains, metal flow, contact pressure, etc.)
o A quality system and failure diagnostic engine to process the simulations to detect failures and quality defects
o A mechanics-based and practical know-how augmented problem solver to provide quantified solutions to predicted failures and quality defects.
o A mesh morphing tool for quick revisions of product and die geometry to
implement the resolutions.
· Making technology work in mass production to strengthen manufacturing competitiveness: Established and led a virtual engineering team to implement the digital die technology and quality system to the largest industrial application of more than 4,000 automotive stamping dies and 40 million tons of stampings for all GM vehicle programs. The virtual engineering shortens the die lead-time by 80% and reduced tooling cost by 50% while significantly improved autobody quality.
· Simulation-guided manufacturing process: Led and established common standards and the standardized work processes in tooling shops and stamping plants to utilize the engineered manufacturing parameters to achieve engineered formability and quality in stamped parts. These GM unique processes utilize a patented Draw-in Map (required metal feed-in to the die to make a quality part) engineered from stamping simulations to simplify die tryout work and significantly improve first-time success rate (90%) in tooling shops and production.
· Make engineering and manufacturing science work in shop floors: Lead, develop and conduct the industrial largest training and certification programs to prepare GM workforce for the historical transition to math-guided manufacturing era. More than 4000 engineers, die makers, production workers, supervisors and mangers in GMNA 21 die and stamping plants went through the training to understand and use simulation-based engineering principles and results in daily production work to improve productivity and reduce time and cost in die construction, tryout, and production stamping. The new training program is further extended to global die and stamping community in 2007 for GMLAM and 2008 for GME and GMAP.
· GM global technology and business leadership in advanced die engineering and body manufacturing technology and mass production applications through integrated research, development and applications (R&D&A) and global efforts. Also provides trainings for GME, GMLAM, GMAP teams.
5. Technical Society Membership and Activities in Engineering and Public Service
· International Scientific Committee member of NumiSheet (Numirical Simulations for Sheet Forming Process), since 2004
· Steering Committee member and Task Leader of USCAR/NIST “Die Face Engineering” . 2004-2007
· Steering Committee member and Task Leader for USCAR/DOE “Flexible Binder Force Control for Robust Stamping”. 2003-2006
· Member: SAE (Society of Automotive Engineer),
· Member: NADDRG ( North America Deep Drawing Research Group)
· Reviewer, IJMS (International Journal of Mechanical Science)
· Reviewer, IJMP (International Journal of Material Processing)
6. Impact of Work
· Contribute to fundamentals understanding of metal forming mechanics, material processing technologies, and manufacturing engineering.
· Pioneered the simulation-based engineering in developing and applying the advanced digital die and digital stamping technology and processes to transform the traditional trial-and-error-based die and metal forming industry to a science-based engineering and simulation technology driven manufacturing.
· Productioning and applying the simulation-based engineering system for industrial largest applications of 4000 stamping dies and 40 million tons of automotive stampings for all GM vehicles. It reduced tooling cost by 50%, shortened tooling lead-time by 80%, and significantly improved vehicle perceived quality.
· Global impact to GM die and stamping business. Led and implemented GM global stamping CAE infrastructure and simulation-based engineering system and quality process in GM North America, GM Europe, GM Latin America, and GM Asia Pacific regions.
· Advocate simulation-based die engineering and manufacturing science to tooling and stamping vendors in USA and around world through conferences and training programs for vendors. All major die vendors in USA adopted the simulation-based engineering for business competitiveness.
· Promote the emerging of new engineering profession, Forming Simulation Engineer (FSE) in traditional die and metal forming industry. The new profession is in increasing demand and becoming more and more attractive to college students.
· Provide Education and Training at Shop Floor (E&T@SF) to benefit the mass workforce to understand and use simulation-based engineering results and manufacturing science in daily operations to strengthen US manufacturing competitiveness in productivity and quality.
7. Contributions of Record
2007: SAE/AISI Sydney H. Melbourne Award for Excellence in the Advancement of Automotive Sheet Steel
2006: Lifetime Achievement, GM Manufacturing Engineering Die Center
2004: Winner of GM top technology award -“Boss” Kettering Award for “Advanced digital die technology and quality system for line die forming validations to reduce cost and lead-time and improve stamping quality”. This next generation of virtual engineering systems for entire press line forming simulations enables die and stamping to predict and resolve all failures and quality problems in each die forming (draw, trim, flange) of a virtual press line to form a quality part. It create great business values in reducing die cost by 50% and tooling lead-time by 80%, and improve panel quality (enable die and stamping operations to meet the tightest dimensional tolerance within 0.5-mm on 80% of points in specified tolerance).
2000: Winner of “Boss” Kettering Award for “An Integrated Die Engineering Analysis Process using Math-based Formability Problem Solver and Mesh Morphing for Quick Die Revisions”. This invention shortened engineering time for draw dies by three weeks and reduced cost by 20%. (Awarded as GM Trade Secret)
2003: Chairman Honor for “Integrated die face engineering and solid die design process” to reduce die development time through parallel die engineering and die design process.
2001: Chairman Honor for “ Springback Prediction, Compensation, and FEShape Morphing” to improve vehicle body panel dimensional accuracy and vehicle perceivable quality“.
· Inventions and Nominations for “Boss” Kettering Award
o 2007: “Virtual Die Compensation with FESHAPE – Reduce Cost and Lead-time and Improve Quality”. The innovation includes development and application of a leading virtual engineering tool – FESHAPE, for effective die modifications using predicted springback to ensure dimensional quality. The technology enables GM to use more advanced high strength steels and aluminum in body components to reduce vehicle weight for fuel economy and improve crash performance. Over 400 stamping dies of more than 20 vehicle programs have been compensated using FESHAPE since 2003. It reduced tryout cost and time for high strength steels by 15%, and to enable stamping to meet increasing dimensional quality demands from 3-mm to 0.5mm.
o 2003: “ Draw-in Map for Stamping Die Tryout”. This patented process is a paradigm shift in traditional die tryout that largely relies on individual experience and skills. The new process is part of Math-guided manufacturing process. It utilizes engineered critical tryout parameters and the road map (the Draw-in map) to greatly simplify tryout work, shorten tryout time by 80%, and improve tryout first-time success rate by 90%. (United States Patent 7130708, granted on Oct. 31, 2006)
o 2003: “Development and implement of Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) technology to RunFast in stamping simulations to reduce die engineering lead-time”. This innovation in computational mechanics and computing technology utilizes multiple computers to perform a single task to reduce stamping simulation turn-around time by 4-6 times to meet the needs of shorten VDP timing.
o 2002: “ Die surface relief based on predicted tool contact pressure and metal flow to reduce die construction and tryout time and cost. Lead the development of techniques and application process to predict and validate the outcome of die surface relief in virtual die construction. (Awarded as GM Trade Secret)
o 2001: “Formability Allowance Test to improve robustness of dies and production stamping” through simulating and validating production variations in the math world. (Awarded as GM Trade Secret)
· Innovations and Nominations for GM Chairman Honors Award
o 2004: “Line die engineering and analysis process” for complete die line developments and validations in math world to reduce tryout time and cost and improve quality. Team leader and originator .
o 2004: “Aluminum Closure Taskforce” to develop and validate design guidelines and Bill of Process for aluminum closure panels
o 2003: “ATDS and Die Validation Common Process”. This is a math-guided die verification process by fulfilling engineering intent in die tryout. The common process ensures a consistent formability/quality execution division wide in GM's Metal Fabricating Division (MFD). Team leader and originator.
o 2002: “Formability Workbook – Math-based Manufacturing Guide for Die Tryout and Production Stamping”. Led, developed and implemented a web-based Formability Workbook to transfer the math-based formability knowledge to the shop floors. This integrated Formability Workbook include Formability Packages, on-line Tryout Guide and help, Trifold Checklist for trouble shooting, and ATDS to assist die makers and supervisors to understand and use Formability Packages efficiently in die tryout and stamping production.
o 2001: “Formability Training and Experts Certification Program”. Led, developed, and conducted the industrial first and largest training and certification program to prepare GMNA workforce (1800 workers, supervisors, managers, engineers) in die and stamping business for GM’s historical transition to math-based die engineering process and math-guided manufacturing era.
o 1999: “Engineered draw beads”. Led, developed, and implemented “math-based and tryout-ready draw beads” to significantly reduce die tryout time (min. 3 weeks) and improve stamping quality
8. Collaborative Research Projects
· National Science Foundation (NSF) Project (Northwest Univ., Univ. of Mass., and GM) - "Integrated Sensing System for Stamping Monitoring and Control" , Principal Investigator, Since 2006
· USCAR/NIST Project - “Die Face Engineering” , Task Leader: 2004-2007
· USCAR/DOE Project – “Flexible Binder Force Control for Robust Stamping” , Task Leader: 2003-2006
· “ Mechanics-based surface distortion predictor” with Northwest Univ. GMR&D and Die Center, Technical Advisor, Since 2006
· “ Quantified visualization tool for panel surface defects” by GMR&D and GM Die Center, Technical Advisor, Since 2006
· “ Advanced springback compensation tool FeShape for line dies” by GMR&D and GM Die Center, Core team member and advisor since 2003
· “ Skid/Impact Line Predictions and Resolutions and Product Design Guidelines” Die Center, GMR&D, Core team member and advisor since 2006
9. Community Services
· GM Chinese Affinity Group (GMCAG)
· 2000: One of key originators of GMCAG
· 2001-2002: Served as Committee Chairman of Business Administration and Public Relations of GMCAG during
· Active member of GM CAG since 2001 and volunteer as divisional coordinator for GMCAG activities in GM Metal Fabricating Division and ME
· Local fund raising committees for
· 2004 – present: National Leukemia & Lymphoma Society
· 2005- present: “Campaign for a Cure” for St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital
· 1999-2006: Lead GMNA Die Engineering - Formability Analysis group with multi-national background (majority of Asia American engineers), build and develop a multi-national culture environment that harmonizes team members and provides technical development opportunities in the field of sheet metal forming and die engineering business through technical innovations and business leaderships.
10. Publications (~ 70 since 1989)
69: C.T. Wang: Simulation-based virtual die engineering in automotive dies and stamping”, invited speech
in PLM’2007 (Product Lifecycle Management) Conference, Plymouth, MI Sept. 20-22, 2007.
68. J. Cao, H. Wang, C.T. Wang et all: “Buckling of Sheet Metals in Contact with Tool
Surfaces”, Annuals of the CIRP (2007), Vol.56/1, pp.253-256.
67. J. Cao, R. Gao, C.T. Wang et all : “Integrated Sensing System for Stamping Monitoring and Control”,
2007 IEEE Sensors conference, October 28 - 31, 2007, Hyatt Regency Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
66. C.T. Wang: Evolution and Globalization of virtual line die engineering technology, application process
and quality system, GM Global CAE Conference, Sept. 10-13, 2007. Warren MI, USA
65. C.T. Wang et all: A Mechanics-based predictor for surface distortion in sheet metals, GM Global CAE
Conference, Sept. 10-13, 2007. Warren MI, USA
64. C.T. Wang et all: Springback sensitivity and robustness resolutions via product design, GM Global
CAE Conference, Sept. 10-13, 2007. Warren MI, USA
63. Tom Stoughton, CT. Wang, Lumin Geng, Gene Hsiung: Skid line study – Experiment and analysis of a
bake-hardenable steel, GM R&D Report, March 20, 2007
62. C.T. Wang et all: “Optimal Designs of Automotive Stamping Dies via Integrated Forming Simulations
and Die Structural Analysis. SAE International Congress, April 16-20, 2007, Detroit, MI, U.S.A.
61. C.T. Wang et all: “On Improving the Accuracy of Springback Prediction and Die Compensation. SAE
International Congress, April 16-20, 2007, Detroit, MI, U.S.A
60. C.T. Wang et all: “Virtual Manufacturing of Automotive Body Side Outers Using Advanced Line
Die Forming Simulation. SAE International Congress, April 16-20, 2007, Detroit, MI, U.S.A
59. C.T. Wang et all: “Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using
Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations. SAE International Congress, April 16-20,
2007, Detroit, MI, U.S.A
58. CT. Wang et all: “ Advanced line die forming simulation technology and its impact on stamping
automotive body panels”. GM Global CAE Conference, May, 2006, Warren, MI USA
57. CT. Wang: Invited keynote speech: “Evolution of advanced stamping CAE – technology adventures and business impact on automotive dies and stamping”, the 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 78-83, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
56. CT. Wang et all: “ Draw-in map – a road map for simulation-guided die tryout and stamping process control”. The 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 66-69, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
55. CT. Wang et all: “ Integrated forming simulations and die structure analysis for optimal die designs”. The 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 152-155, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
54. CT. Wang et all: “ Springback prediction, compensation and correlation for automotive stamping”. The 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 345-352, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
53. CT. Wang et all: “ Advanced line die forming simulation technology and its impact on stamping automotive body panels”. The 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 484 - 489, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
52. CT. Wang et all: “ Experimental test for benchmark 1 – decklid inner panel”. The 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 1137 - 1139, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
51. CT. Wang et all: “ Specification for benchmark 1 – decklid inner panel”. The 6th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2005), pp. 881 - 887, Detroit, USA, August. 15-19, 2005
50. CT. Wang: Evolutions of numerical simulation based Stamping CAE Technology and applications in automotive dies and stamping , The 7th Numiform Conference, May 7 - 10, 2004, Colombus, Ohio
49. CT. Wang: Evolutions of Stamping CAE and State of Technology in Springback Resolution , The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
48. CT. Wang, et al: Draw-in Map – A roadmap for math-guided tryout and production trouble shooting , The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
47. CT. Wang, et al: Run-fast in stamping simulations using MPP technology , The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
46. CT. Wang, et al: Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Aluminum Deck Lid Inners, The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
45. CT. Wang, et al: Die Structure Analysis for optimal die designs , The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
44. CT. Wang, et al: Math-based Technical Memory to Resolve Formability Problems in Sheet Metal Product Design, Die Development and Production Trouble Shoot, The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
43. CT. Wang, et al: Math-based buyoff lines for die tryout, The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
42. CT. Wang, et al: Advanced Hydroforming Simulations and Applications in Product Design, Die Development, and Production Trouble Shooting, The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
41. CT. Wang, et al: Pam-Stamp/Autoform Integrating Application in Formability Design for GMX365 Body Side Outer Panel at Early Stage of Vehicle Program , The 4th GM CAE Conference, April 7 - 9, 2003, Pontiac MI.
40. Chuantao Wang: Invited keynote speech: “The Industrial Outlook for Springback Predictability, Measurement Reliability and Compensation Technology”, the 5th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’2002), South Korea, Oct. 15-17
39. CT. Wang: Advanced Stamping Simulation Technology for the New Millennium, International Body Engineering Conference, Oct. 20-23, 2000, Detroit
38. CT. Wang et al: Math-based Buyoff Lines for Die Tryout, International Body Engineering Conference, Oct. 20-23, 2000, Detroit
37. CT. Wang: MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF BENDING-SLIDING-UNBENDING THROUGH A BEND RADIUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN FORMABILITY PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATH-BASED DIE DEVELOPMENTS IN SHEET METAL FORMING (Unpublished technical paper due to trade secret)
36. Chuantao (CT) Wang: Advanced Stamping Simulation Technology – State of Business and Industrial Prospect for the Next Century, Proc. the 4th International Conference on 3D Simulations for Sheet Forming Process (NumiSheet’99), Besancon, France, Sept. 13 – 17,1999, pp.250-256
35. J. Zhang, A. Terenzi, CT. Wang: One-step finite element simulations - comparisons to incremental method and guidelines for its applications in product design and die engineering, 1st Ameri-PAM Conference, Nov. 3 – 4, 1999, Farmiton Hills, MI
34. CT. Wang: Advanced Stamping Simulation Technology for Line Die Forming – Production Needs and Technological Challenge, the HAN- PAM Conference, Nov 15 - 17, 1999, Seoul, Korea
33. CT. Wang: Selective Surface Treatment of Stamping Dies based on Predicted Contact Pressure and Metal Flow Velocity in Finite Element Analysis , The 2nd GM CAE Conference, Sept 15 - 17, 1999, Pontiac MI.
32. CT. Wang: Advanced Simulation Technology for Line Die Forming Analysis, The 1st GM CAE Conference, June 15 - 17, 1998, Pontiac MI.
31. CT. Wang: The Impact of Stamping Simulation Technology on GM Die Development and Production Stamping - Time Reduction, Cost Saving, and Quality improvement, The 1st GM/NAO CAE Conference, May 12 - 13, 1997.
30. Gang Lin and C.T. Wang: Applications of Internet and Web Technology for GM Global Die Development, The 1st GM CAE Conference, June 15 - 17, 1998.
29. CT. Wang: Mechanics Models and Control Techniques of Drawbead Force and Binder Hold-down Force in Sheet Metal Forming, Submitted to Int. J. Materials Processing Technology,
28. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Bending Effects in Stretch/Draw Forming and Bending Correction Models for Membrane Finite Element Modeling, submitted to Int. J. Materials Processing Technology
27. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel & T. Altan: Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Rotary Bending and Tractrix Die Bending, Int. J. Materials Processing Technology, 1996
26. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, T. Altan: Failure Criteria and Mathematical Modeling of Shrink and Stretch Flanging in Sheet Metal Forming, Int. J. Materials Processing Technology , 1995
25. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, T. Altan: Wrinkling Criteria for an Anisotropic Shell with Compound Curvatures in Sheet Forming, Int. J. Mechanical Science., Vol. 36, No. 10, pp.945-960, 1994
24. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Investigation of Shrink Flanging: Prediction of Wrinkles and Experimental Verification, SAE Paper No. 940939, 1994 SAE International Congress, March 1-4, Detroit, MI, U.S.A.
23. S.Tafekci, C.T. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Estimation and Control of Drawbead Force in Sheet Metal Forming, SAE Paper No. 940941, 1994 SAE International Congress, March 1-4, Detroit, MI, U.S.A.
22. CT. Wang, L. Huang: Finite Element Simulation of Front Fender Forming Using LS-DYNA3D and ETA/FEMB, NumiSheet’93 International Conference, Aug. 31 - Sept. 2, Tokyo, Japan, 1993
21. CT. Wang: Mechanics of Bending, Flanging, and Deep Drawing and a Computer Simulation System to Predict Strains, Fractures, Wrinkles, and Springback in Sheet Metal Forming, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1993.
20. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Process Simulation and Springback Control in Plane Strain Sheet Bending, SAE Paper No. 930280, 1993 SAE Int. Cong., March I - 5, Detroit, MI, Sheet Metal and Stamping Symposium, pp. 45 - 54.
19. S. Tafekci, CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Experimental Determination of Strains and Forces in Stretch and Shrink Flanging Operations, NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-94-07, 1994.
18. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: A Complete Theory and Mathematical Modeling of Plane Strain Bending of Sheet and Plate, Int. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 39(1993), pp. 279-304
17. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Mechanics of Bending and Flanging and A User’s Manual of Computer Programs of BEND and FL4NGF, Report to NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., No. ERC/NSM-S-93-59, The Ohio State University, 1993.
16. S. Tufekci, CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Drawbead Design Guidelines and Mathematical Modeling of Drawbead Forces, NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report no.ERC/NSM-S-93-17, 1993.
15. T. Yu, CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: A CAD and Knowledge-Based Expert System for Part Design and Process Planning in Sheet Forming, Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-93-8, 1993.
14. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Plane Strain Sheet Bending - Fundamentals and Applications: Part I - Elementary Theory, NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-92-15, 1992.
13. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan- Plane Strain Sheet Bending - Fundamentals and Applications: Part 11 - Advanced Topics, NSF Eng. Res.Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-92-47, 1992.
12. CT. Wang & R.H. Wagoner: Square-Punch Forming: Measurements & Finite Element Simulations in 2-D and 3-D, Int. J. Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 193 - 219, 1992
11. CT. Wang, G. Kinzel, & T. Altan: Sheet Forming Technology - Operations and Process Control, NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-91-6, 1991.
10. Y.Keum, CT. Wang, M. Saran, and R.H. Wagoner: Practical Die Design via Section Analysis, Int. J. Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. I- 36, 1992
9. CT. Wang & R.H. Wagoner: Plane Strain Deep Drawing: Finite Element Modeling and Measurements, in Autobody Stamping Technology Progress, Published by SAE, Inc., Warrendale, PA, 1991, pp. 133 - 142
8. CT. Wang & R-H. Wagoner: Square Punch Stretch: Sectional Finite Element Analysis and Bending Study, 1992 SAE Transaction, Journal of Material Manufacturing , Vol. 1992.
7. CT. Wang & R.H. Wagoner: Square Punch Stretch: Section Analysis and Bending Study, in Stamping Technology Progress, Published by SAE, Inc., Warrendale, PA, 1991, pp. 119 128.
6. CT. Wang & R.H. Wagoner: Square Punch Stretching: F.E.M. Simulation and Experimental measurements, Proc. A SM Conf. on Near Net Shape Manuf. for Automotive Industry, Oct. 8-10, Detroit, MI, 1990, pp. 156 - 159
5. CT. Wang: Finite Element Analysis & Experimental Investigation of Square Punch Stretching and Deep Drawing of Steel Sheets, M.S. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1990.
4. CT. Wang & R.H. Wagoner: Effect of Blank Holder Pressure on Shape Fixability of Deep Drawn Strips, TMS Fall Meeting, Detroit, MI, Oct. 8 - 12, 1990
3. CT. Wang & R.H. Wagoner: A Finite Element Program SHEET-S and Numerical Study and Experimental Investigation of Square Punch Stretching and Draw-In Processes, Project Report for NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-90-5, 1990.
2. Y. Keum, CT. Wang, & R.H. Wagoner: Finite Element Program SHEET-S Version 2.0@ Industrial Trial and User’s Guide, NSF Eng. Res. Center for Net Shape Manuf., The Ohio State University, Report No. ERC/NSM-S-90-9, 1.990.
1. R.H. Wagoner, C.T. Wang, & E. Nakamachi: Quick Analysis of Sheet Forming Using Sectional FEM, Proceedings of First Japan International SAMPE Symp. & Exhibition, Chiba, Japan, Nov. 28 - Dec. 1, 1989, pp. 695 700